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Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia)

Posted on November 18 2016

The bird Yellow Warbler belongs to the family Parulidae and its scientific name is Setophaga petechial. All Wood Warblers belongs to this family. The genus name is Setophaga and taken from Ancient Greek ses, "moth", and phagos, "eating", and the specific petechia is from Italian petecchia, meaning a small red spot on the skin. This bird is considered as a bright and having sweet voice to sung. Its sound is also a familiar in the regions of woodland edges and streamside willows.

This is one of the most broadly dispersed warblers which usually nests from Arctic Circle towards Mexico, having closely related procedures sideways of tropical shorelines. It is very easy to find, cuplike nests in these kind of areas, and usually cowbirds habitually lay eggs in them. In some areas Yellow Warblers try to produce parasites somehow by constructing a new floor above the eggs of cowbird and also lay a new grasp of their own. According to the one case, obstinate cowbirds ultimately return to five times for the purpose of more egg laying in one nest, and an straightly more determined warbler construct six layers of shell floors to protect the cowbird eggs.  

Mature male Bright yellow generally, have dark back and also having two subtle pale colored wing bars. Through the bold reddish streaks flanks and Breast are properly marked. Other subspecies like Caribbean subspecies is alike, but it has a slightly dark colored crown and more powerful bands on the underpart areas. While the mature female reminiscences through the respective local male, but is more equally yellow inclusive and through slight or no whizzing below. Undeveloped recalls mature female through washed out shades and numerous individuals are overall olive-gray. According to dimensions the length is almost 4 1/2-5" (11-13 cm) (Dunn et al., 2011).

Most commonly the habitat of Yellow Warbler is mainly the summer season that is (Apr-Aug) to wet thickets that is (especially willow) and also edges of secondary woodland. Mostly the winters is their habitat in South and Central America. This can also be found in Range New England, Texas, Plains, Rocky Mountains, Western Canada, Alaska, California, Great Lakes, Florida, Southwest, Southeast, Mid-Atlantic, Eastern Canada and Northwest.

 The bird has also the ability to sing and its voice Song is a just like a whistle swee’swee’swee’swee-swit-su-su; and it is basically the call of a sharp tchup. Colorful and acquainted wood-warbler basically shows subtle local plumage variation and northern birds are usually darker in color than the southern ones. Usually they forages at moderately low stages and it is easy to perceive. Genders are distinguishable, but all grownups are slightly cheerful in spring rather than the season of fall.

Just because of its extensive widespread it is not that much easy to distinguish the immigration of this species. It has also very extreme geographic variability as there are almost seven migratory subspecies in the region of North America. In mid-March the species of first Yellow Warblers reaches in the United States from the southern California. These kind of birds, usually represents two categories that pass up through the cost of Pacific and reaches to the southern Alaska through mid-May.

Remaining five categories reaches in the United States in premature of April. This huge surge of birds then passes from side to side the southern states and also from the sideways of an extensive front extending through Arizona to Florida. Though their movement is quick but among all the birds some of these birds also touches the Great Lakes area earlier the April ended up. Numerous other species reaches in inside of Alaska by the mid of May. This species mostly migrates at night. Fall immigration is very initial, with numerous moving south during August (Davis & Andrew, 2015).

They feed mostly from lower levels towards the upper level. They usually takes insects through branches and vegetation, flies are the items that are mostly taken from underneath of leaves, and then flies out afterward the insect fly. Males typically tend to take food from higher regions and also through more open greenery rather than females. They feed alone in winter in tropics that mainly protects a winter feeding territory.

They lay eggs 4 to 5 and occasionally 3 to 6. The color of the egg vary from green to white, with diversity of dots or flecks of gray, olive and brown. The eggs are incubated exclusively by female among 11-12 days. Male birds feeds on female in their nest. These are also regularly parasitized through the cowbirds and also have the ability to defend in contradiction of parasitism after rebuilding fresh nest on uppermost of cowbird eggs, or through discarding nest. Young species mostly fed by both parents female and male. Younger one leaves the nest within 9 to 12 days after hatching.

Their diet is mostly on insects. They also eat caterpillars of numerous types. These birds also feeds on mayflies, moths, mosquitoes, beetles, damselflies, treehoppers, and other insects, as well as spiders and also eats a few berries. It is the duty of male birds to defend their nest form territories through singing and also sometimes through the performance trembling flight exhibits. Male benches female through actively chasing her for 1 to almost 4 days.

Nest is usually placed in straight fork of brushwood in bushes, minor trees, and briars that are 2 to 60 above from ground. Nest are frequently built by the female and it is like a dense open cup of wildflower stems, shredded bark, and grassland, lined with plant down or fur. Male partners go together with females on journeys to the nest and infrequently help in the building. Females also snip material of nest from other nests.

These birds can also be used for beneficial purpose. Particularly the young consume numerous pest insects throughout the season of breeding. However, the fuzz and song of the breeding males can be described as "lovely" and "musical", and they can be helpful to produce revenue from ecotourism. Till now no particular harmful effects of American yellow and mangrove warblers on humans have been recorded (Duca et al., 2014).

Davis, Andrew K. "Can a Blood-Feeding Ectoparasitic Fly Affect Songbird Migration? Examining Body Condition and Fat Reserves of Five Bird Species in Relation to Hippoboscid Fly Parasitism." Ecological Parasitology and Immunology 4 (2015): a1-7.

Duca, Charles, and Miguel Ângelo Marini. "High survival and low fecundity of a neotropical savanna tanager." Emu 114.2 (2014): 121-128.

Dunn, Jon Lloyd, and Jonathan K. Alderfer. National Geographic field guide to the birds of North America. National Geographic Books, 2011

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